As the offshore industry continues to push the limits when it comes to extending the life of assets and supporting operation in increasingly harsh conditions, the need for reliable and durable solutions that deliver proven performance, has never been greater.
The focus on technical safety in oil & gas production is continuously increasing, with an expectation that all products and solutions are tested, qualified and certified to relevant regulations and standards. Companies need to be committed to designing high performance, robust and reliable solutions that will improve safety and protect people, equipment, critical components and structures in the most demanding environments.
A fire in offshore or onshore installations can lead to immense destruction, making the uses and understanding of the properties of Passive Fire Protection (PFP) solutions crucial. PFP is typically used in defined areas highlighted in project specific Design Accidental Load (DAL) specifications and are required to meet blast and fire requirements.
A wide range of PFP materials are available in the market, including syntactic phenolic resin-based coating, elastomer-based coatings, epoxy systems, cementitious protection, mineral wool wraps and insulation, and fireproof cladding, as well as concrete products.
As the properties of each material varies, finding the most effective material and technical solution for a project is crucial. Factors to consider when choosing the right solution include the potential source of a fire, its possible duration, temperature and blast, along with qualifications, certificates and material properties.
The objective of PFP is to prevent or mitigate against the serious consequences of fire including:
Elastomer material solutions
- Prevent escalation of fire to adjacent areas
- Ensure a temporary refuge is intact for a specified amount of time
- Protect people from the fire (heat and smoke) and make escape or evacuation possible
- Protect essential systems and equipment
- Maintain structural integrity for a set period
Elastomer-based PFP products and systems are well suited for protection against corrosion and fire scenarios. The most extreme fire scenarios are cellulose, hydrocarbon, jet fire and high heat flux, all distinctive to topsides offshore. Elastomer materials can be used alone or in various combinations to meet specific requirements.
Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is a serious form of localized external corrosion that occurs in insulated carbon and low-alloy steel equipment. This form of corrosion happens when water is absorbed by or collected during the insulation process. The advantage of using elastomer-based materials for PFP is the excellent steel substrate bonding properties offered, providing additional corrosion protection.
Testing and qualifications of PFP solutions
Offshore projects require elastomer materials that show excellent fire protection properties in accordance with relevant authorities, regulations and standards.
Hydrocarbon testing (HC) fire, or pool fire, is a fire fueled by hydrocarbon compounds (oil and gas), having a high flame temperature up to 1,000 °C within 5 minutes, achieved almost instantaneously after ignition. The heat rises to 1,100 °C shortly thereafter, following a given temperature curve in accordance to a standard, for example, NS-EN 1363-2:1999 Fire resistance tests designed to determine the resistance to jet fires of passive fire protection materials and systems. The material’s performance in tests gives an indication of its behavior in a jet fire.
Specialized extended jet fire testing, also referred to as High Heat Flux (HHF), is performed in a much larger chamber allowing increased temperatures of 1,300 oC to 1,400 oC, with higher heat flux (350kW/m2) and allows testing of larger specimens.
Qualification tests are typically performed at accredited fire test laboratories in accordance with set standards and certified by a third-party approval institute. The most common type of testing is performance of project-specific sequential testing, combining the different fire scenarios including blowout, jet fire, pool or hydrocarbon fire.
Benefits of using elastomer-based PFP solutions
Lay down and other deck areas
PFP elastomeric solutions used as deck protection ensures water repellence, flexibility and noise reduction, minimizing corrosion effects by protecting anti-corrosion systems.
Partitions and seals
Prevention of fire escalation between partitions, is essential. Due to its flexibility, Elastomer-based PFP solutions can be applied to any surface, flooring, walls or roofing and it is mounted with a chemical or mechanical bond. The systems ensure water repellence, flexibility, noise reduction, and minimizes corrosion effects by protecting anti-corrosion systems.
Protection between partitions, escape tunnels and routes are also an important part of any total protection solution. Elastomer-based PFP seals offer a flexible connection between rigid metal sections. Capable of handling large displacements, they connect modules, maintaining a fireproof partition, absorbing misalignments, angular deviations and eliminating concentrations of stress. Elastomer-based seals used in escape tunnels and door seals offer protection of door frames and connecting firesafe escape areas.
Benefits of Elastomeric seals:
- Eliminate the propagation of vibrations, dynamic loads and deviations caused by a fabrication process
- They can be customized to fit any shape and size to suit individual project requirements.
- Easily bolted to a variety of structures
- Particularly well suited for use during modifications to metal work
In areas where drainage is required, elastomer-based seals can be made as a drain gully that support the design of a closed deck, eliminating the need for fireproofing of process deck structures. Drain gullies allow spillage from process modules to drain, eliminating the requirement for multiple drainage boxes and integrated overflow.
Oil and gas export risers, flexible risers and pipes have the potential risk of being exposed to blast and fire, together with CUI. Using elastomer-based PFP for risers, can combine corrosion protection with blast, jet and pool fire properties, as well as mechanical protection. Elastomer coatings on risers as corrosion protection is an extremely robust solution, widely recognized as the most effective method for riser corrosion protection, particularly in the highly corrosive splash zone area where the elastomer coating is chemically bonded to the substrate.
Pipe penetrating through partitions increases risk in the event of a fire, allowing fire to spread between areas.
An elastomeric pipe penetration seal acts as a water and gas-tight shield against both blast and fire. Suitable for a wide variety of different size and shape applications, penetration seals close the pipe penetration and allow movement of the pipe during operation.
Nuts and bolts
Installations can be exposed to leakages of flammable and/or explosive substances and severe operating conditions increase the likelihood of leakages, with the majority originating from flanges or fittings. Bolts can easily lose their load-bearing capacity when exposed to heat and are subject to pre-tension, with the load carried by the threads. When threads (bolt and nut) are heated sufficiently, the nut will disconnect, and a leakage will occur. PFP protection of bolts and flanges is an important part in any installation and they can be protected in several ways. The most common is to build a PFP box around the flanged connection, focusing the protection to cover the most critical area, explicitly covering the bolts and nuts to extend service life in the event of a fire.
Developments in elastomeric materials allow for nuts and bolts to be directly covered with molded material, providing a lightweight, space-saving solution that is easy to apply, offering improved levels of protection.
Elastomer-based PFP products are maintenance-free, watertight, resistant to ozone, sea-water and UV-light, as well as suited for use in harsh and cold environments, absorbing and preventing stress and strain transfer within structures.
While the oil & gas industry continues to push limits when it comes to extending the life of assets and operation in even harsher environments, PFP will be a key to mitigate the risk effects of fire, saving lives and assets. We expect the industry will push for solutions with focus on cost-effective PFP solutions as these fit well into this future demand of cost-effective and reliable solutions that solve key industry challenges.